Canola/Edible Beans: Brian Hall
Canola: Dry conditions in Northern growing areas have resulted in uneven emergence. The majority of April planted canola is 2-6 leaf and quite variable within a field. In thin stands of canola consider lowering the action threshold for insect and weed management. Flea beetle pressure continues to remain high in most areas. Scout up to the 4 leaf stage. Control weeds early (1-4 leaf canola stage) to protect yield. Contact herbicides are most effective when applied during the heat of the day.
Edible Beans: It is estimated that 40-50% of intended acres is planted. Dry soils and forecast cooler temperatures have delayed planting in some areas. As part of a weed control program, rotary hoeing beans in the 1-2 leaf stage (not in hook stage) helps to remove very small weed seedlings. If adequate rainfall is not received within 7-10 days of planting, consider using a rotary hoe to remove emerging weeds in ‘white hair’ stage. Larger weeds (2 leaf) may not be removed. Rotary hoeing can help extend the period of weed control for post-emergent herbicide program timing.
Cereals: Peter Johnson/Scott Banks
Winter Cereals continue their rapid development pace. Most fusarium fungicides will have been applied by June 3. There will be some harvest in June. Shortest varieties are those that showed the most freeze injury earlier, indicating that the injury had impact. Straw is becoming increasingly sought after, with prices in the countryside reaching unprecedented levels. Armyworm has been found above threshold (5 larvae (less than 2 cm in length)/ft2 ) in a number of locations from Niagara Falls to Exeter. Cereal leaf beetles are reported above threshold (1 beetle/stem) in the Clinton area. Scout! Spray immediately if threshold is reached. Scout spring cereals also for aphids and cereal leaf beetle as these insects can move from winter cereals. See www.bit.ly/OMAFRACLB for more information.
Spring Cereals in advanced fields are heading (unbelievable!). Oat fungicides must be applied immediately to prevent yield loss from crown rust. Disease levels in other fields are variable based on local environmental conditions, but generally are at low levels.
Corn: Greg Stewart
Corn development has been rapid this past week. Some areas were close to accumulating 200 CHU in 7 days! Good soil conditions and early planting are paying off as the corn continues to move ahead despite relatively dry conditions. Some replanting has occurred where low population and unevenstands were caused by cold shock to the seed or seedling. Yield penalties for late planting get larger in ahurry as you move from late May to early June. Check the Replant Decision Aid posted atwww.gocorn.net. Side-dressing is progressing rapidly in some areas. If the crop has not received weedcontrol or nitrogen and weeds are present make weed control the priority. Initial soil nitrate testing isindicating soil N levels slightly above average and significantly different from 2011. Soil nitrate testing(PSNT) may assist in fine tuning side-dress N rates.
Forages & Pastures: Jack Kyle / Joel Bagg
Pasture: Grass growth continues to be slow but maturity continues to advance. Orchard grass is headed and should be grazed immediately to maintain quality and stimulate new leaf development. Moving livestock to new paddocks when they have grazed half of the available forage will assist in managing this early growth and set pastures for continued summer growth. High stock densities can assist with weed control, especially early in the season when weeds are lush, vegetative and more palatable than when they begin flowering. Monitor cattle on pasture and lookout for any potential problems as the variable growing conditions this year may be a precursor to grass tetany. Providing cattle a mineral supplement with magnesium will help reduce this risk. The following article provides more detail on grass tetany and other animal health issues www.bit.ly/OMAFRAHERD.
Forage: First-cut is complete in some parts of the province with disappointing yields in western Ontario. Low yields and carryover inventories could result in tight forage supplies this year, especially if it remains dry. Hay prices were already at record levels this winter. The following can boost subsequent yields and also significantly reduce harvest and storage losses. Apply nitrogen to grassystands. Applying liquid manure immediately after alfalfa haylage harvest improves both yield and forage quality. A good haylage inoculant is justified to reduce fermentation dry matter losses.
Soybeans: Horst Bohner
Soybean planting finished last week. Stands are generally exceptional if seed was placed into moisture. In some cases no-till drills were not able to penetrate properly especially on top of corn rows. If the seed remains dry it can remain in the soil for up to six weeks and still emerge once moisture arrives. However, if the seed starts to swell and then runs out of moisture before it can complete the germination process it has a limited time to receive additional moisture before it will die. The exact length of time depends on temperature and how far along the germination process the seed developed. They can survive 5 - 7 days before receiving additional moisture. After that time they will start to rot even with rain. There were crusting issues with early planted beans although many of these fields did eventually emerge. Soybean are highly adaptive and can yield very well with low populations if fields are kept weed free. Do not consider replanting unless stands are below 100 000 ppa on light-textured soils and 120 000 ppa on clay soils. A few mm of rainfall are not sufficient to activate pre-emergent herbicides.